50 key research methods concepts as is primarily based upon participant observation, direct observation, and in-depth interviewing Evaluation Research The use of scientific research methods to plan intervention programs, to monitor the implementation of new programs and the operation of existing programs, and to determine how effectively programs or clinical practices achieve their goals.
Case Study An intensive investigation of the current and past behaviors and experiences of a single person, family, group, or organization. Ecological Fallacy False conclusions made by assuming that one can infer something about an individual from data collected about groups.
The mathematical representation of the flow at hydraulic structures is equivalent to that of open- channel flow, resulting in an efficient implementation of hydraulic structures into the solution method. Third, the core of concept mapping consists of several state-of-the-art multivariate statistical methods that analyze the input from all of the individuals and yields an aggregate group product.
Exploratory Study A study that aims to identify relationships between variables when there are no predetermined expectations as to the nature of those relations. The number of observations that correspond to each cell of the table are indicated in each of the table cells.
Census The collection of data from all members, instead of a sample, of the target population.
Data Imputation A method used to fill in missing values due to nonresponse in surveys. Dummy Variables Categorical variables that are assigned a value of 0 or 1 for use in a statistical analyses see Dummy Coding. Observation Unit The actual unit observed during a study.
Categorical Data Variables with discrete, non-numeric or qualitative categories e. Field notes are the principle form of data gathered from direct observation and participant observation. Logistic Regression A special form of regression used to analyze the relationship between predictor variables and a dichotomous outcome variable.
In experimental research, this variable is expected to depend on a predictor or independent variable. If the confidence level is. Parameter A characteristic of a population. Likert Scale A scale that on which survey respondents can indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements.
A lower alpha level is better than a higher alpha level, with all else equal. The more missing data there are in a data set, the greater the likelihood of bias. Data Analysis The process by which data are organized to better understand patterns of behavior within the target population.
To have face validity, other researchers who read the survey questions must also agree that the questions do appear to measure gender role attitudes. In-person surveys are one-on-one interviews typically conducted in high-traffic locations such as shopping malls.
Experimental Control Processes used to hold the conditions uniform or constant under which an investigation is carried out. The sociologist is mainly interested in the interaction between the people - the ways in which people act towards respond and influence each other.
Effect Size A measure of the strength of the effect of the predictor or independent variable on the outcome or dependent variable. Completion Rate In survey research, this is the proportion of qualified respondents who complete the interview.
Forecasting The prediction of the size of a future quantity e. If the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1 then the variables are negatively correlated.Concept testing allows you to refine a product concept, ad campaign, new logo, or even a landing page by getting feedback directly from your target market.
It can be as simple and quick or iterative and sophisticated as you need.
With thematic further reading stretching across the social sciences, Research Methods: The Key Concepts will help readers develop a firm understanding of the rationale and principles behind key research methods, and is a must-have for new researchers at all levels, from undergraduate to postgraduate and beyond.
Although concept mapping is a general method, it is particularly useful for helping social researchers and research teams develop and detail ideas for research. And, it is especially valuable when researchers want to involve relevant stakeholder groups in the act of creating the research project.
The basic premise of sociology is that human behavior is largely shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups.
The main focus of sociology is the group not the individual. The sociologist is mainly interested in the interaction.
Research Methods in Human Development Kathleen W. Brown Paul C. Cozby Developmental Research 9 Cultural Research 9 Summary 10 Key Terms 10 Review Questions 11 Physiological Measures 50 Evaluating DependentMeasures 51 Reliability 51 Validity 53 Reactivity The research glossary defines terms used in conducting social science and policy research, for example those describing methods, measurements, statistical procedures, and other aspects of research; the child care glossary defines terms used to describe aspects of child care and early education practice and policy.Download